Apache is a popular web server used by millions of websites and organizations. It offers tons of features and commands to help you easily get your work done. It can be difficult to remember all its directives and commands. So it is advisable to keep a simple cheat sheet of commonly used commands handy. In this article, we will create an Apache commands cheat sheet to help you.
Apache Commands Cheat Sheet
Here are the most commonly used Apache commands for your quick reference in Ubuntu/Debian systems. If you get a ‘permission denied’ error for any of the following commands, try running them by adding sudo keyword at the beginning.
1. Check Apache Version
You can easily check your Apache server’s version with the following command.
$ apache2 -v
If you want to detailed information about your Apache server, use -V option.
$ apache2 -V
2. Test Apache Configuration
After you make changes to your Apache server’s configuration file, you can run the following command to test Apache configuration.
$ apachectl -t
It will point out syntax errors in your configuration file so that you don’t restart Apache server with an erroneous configuration file.
3. Enable & Disable Virtual Hosts
If you want to enable a virtual host for website, say, example.com, you need to place its configuration file at /etc/apache2/sites-available and use a2ensite command to create a symlink to the configuration file, at /etc/apache2/sites-enabled. For example, if you have /etc/apache2/sites-available/example.com.conf file then run the following command to enable it.
$ a2ensite example.com
Similarly, if you want to disable the above virtual host, use a2dissite command.
$ a2dissite example.com
4. Enable & Disable Configuration File
Similarly, you can also enable or disable configuration files with a2enconf and a2disconf commands respectively. These configuration files are generally placed at /etc/apache2/sites-available.
Here is an example command to enable phpmyadmin configuration file.
$ a2enconf phpmyadmin
Similarly, here is the command to disable this configuration file.
$ a2disconf phpmyadmin
5. Enable & Disable Apache Modules
Apache supports wide range of modules, packages & libraries to extend its functionality. The modules are installed at /etc/apache2/mods-available. When you enable a module, a symlink to the module will be created at /etc/apache2/mods-enabled.
You can use a2enmod command to enable Apache module, and a2dismod to disable the module. Here is an example to enable Apache’s mod_rewrite module.
$ a2enmod rewrite
Here is the command to disable mod_rewrite.
$ a2dismod rewrite
6. Start, Stop, Restart Apache Server
You can use systemctl utility to restart Apache server easily. Here are the common commands to manage Apache server.
$ systemctl apache2 start
$ systemctl apache2 stop
$ systemctl apache2 restart
Reload Apache Configuration Without Restart
$ systemctl apache2 reload
If you want to view more commands that are available for Apache server, run the following command.
$ apache2 -h
In this article, we have learnt many commonly used commands for Apache server.